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Chogha Zanbil

Chogha Zanbil consists of the ruins of three concentric walls, within which were palaces, temples and a central Ziggurat (temple tower), measuring 105 X 105 meters.

The first wall of Chogha Zanbil has seven gates, which reflects the religious ideologies of that time. Between the inner and middle walls, several temples dedicated to different Elamite divinities were built.

Chogha Zanbil’s second wall (460 X 420 m) enclosed seven temples and four chapels.

The outer city wall was about 4 km long and enclosed an area of approximately 100 hectares.

The royal quarter was situated adjacent to a major city gate some 450 m east of the Ziggurat. In this area, an extensive water tank and a group of three major buildings with large courts surrounded by lengthy halls and rooms were excavated. Beneath one of these buildings, five underground tombs of monumental dimensions were unearthed.

Finally, Chogha Zanbil’s interior wall (190 X 170 m) encloses the Ziggurat, which originally was 53 m and five stories high, is the largest surviving monument of its kind, beyond Babylonia and Assyria.

Chogha Zanbil is built mainly of mud-bricks. The monuments were well built and beautifully decorated with glazed baked bricks, gypsum, ornaments of faience and glass. Thousands of baked bricks bearing inscriptions with Elamites cuneiform characters were all inscribed by hand, ornamenting the most important buildings. Glazed terracotta statues such as bulls and winged griffins guarded the entrances to the Ziggurat Iran.

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