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Qom

Qom

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  The Historical Monuments:
::Castles
Archeological Hills
Tombs 
Historical Caravansaries
Old Houses and City Sectors
Old Religious Science Schools 
Old Bazaars 
Other Historical Monuments Details >>
 

The Towns:

::Qom

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Altitudes and Summits
Protected Zones 
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The Sacred & religious monuments:
::Old Mosques
Mausoleums and ImamzadehsDetails >>
 

 

 

Townships
Qom
It is said that the city of Qom existed in the pre-Islamic ages, whereas, some believe that the same belongs to the post Islamic times. ‘Kom’ was the name of the ancient rampart of the city of Qom, thus, the Arabs called it Qom. During the Arab conquests in Iran, Qom was a district of Esfahan and thereby was captured along with the same. In the year 23-24 A.H., Abu Moosa Ashari, dispatched a part of the forces under his command to Qom. It was during the reign of Caliph Omar II, that Qom was captured by the Moslems, and was turned into a city due to migration of the Ashari tribe from Kufeh. Conflicts arose between the new arrivals (Arabs) and the former residents of the area being the Zoroastrians. Finally the invaders gained a strong hold. From the early Islamic period, the Alavians flocked to Qom so as to remain free of pursuit from the dominating Abbassid and Omavi rulers.
Due to presence of the Alavians here, this city became their seat. The people held Ma’moon responsible for the assassination of the eighth Imam of the Shiite sect, Imam Ali Ebne Moos-al-Reza (PBUH), and have great respect for the Imam’s sibling who passed away in Qom and was laid to rest in that very city, in the year 201 A.H. This brought about differences between the inhabitants and the ruler of the times, and people evaded taxes. This prompted Ma’moon to send forces to Qom in the year 210 A.H., which resulted in a public massacre and destruction of the city.
On hearing of the demise of Ma’moon, the inhabitants of Qom revolted and were successful in overthrowing the representative of the Caliph in 216 A.H. Ma’moon’s successor dispatched forces to Qom in order to curb the riots and once again the city was set aflame. Later, ‘Mohammad Ebne Issa Ba’ad Qesi’ was assigned as the ruler of Qom, and he followed a tactful policy. With the oncoming of the Abbassids, the anti-Alavi policy strengthened, and the inhabitants of Qom gave full support to ‘Hassan Kokabi’ till the Alavian rule dominated in the limits of Taleqan, Qazvin, Zanjan and Abhar.
In the year 254 A.H., the Abbassid Caliph of the time assigned ‘Moosa Ebne Baqa’ to curb Hassan Kokabi and the revolts of Qom. The inhabitants appealed to the eleventh Imam of the Shiite sect, Imam Hassan Asgari (PBUH) in order to be freed from the hands of the despotic caliphs and their agents. The unrest continued until Al Booyeh came to power, who was from the Alavian community. It was during this reign that the city of Qom expanded and thrived. In the Saljuqi era the city flourished too.
During the Mongol invasion the city witnessed destruction, but after Mongol rulers, such as ‘Soltan Mohammad Oljaito’ adhered to Islam, the city received special attention, thus reviving again. In the late 8th century A.H., the city came under the plunder of ‘Teimoor Gurkani’ when the inhabitants were massacred again. During the periods of the rule of the ‘Qarah Qoyoonloo’, ‘Aq Qoyoonloo’, and especially during the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed. In the year 909 A.H., Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to the Shiite sect, and was a vital pilgrimage site and religious pivot.
During the Afghan invasion, the city of Qom suffered heavy damages, and its inhabitants witnessed economic pressures. Qom further saw severe damages during the reigns of Nader Shah Afshar, and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajar in order to gain power in Iran. In the year 1208 A.H., Qom came under the control of Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar. On being victorious over his enemies, Fath Ali Shah was responsible for the repairs done on the sepulcher and Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.), as he had made such a vow.
The city of Qom thrived in the Qajar era. After the Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom. The transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was discussed. But the British and Russians demolished the plan by bringing the monarch of the times, Ahmad Shah under pressure. Coinciding with this period, a ‘National Defense Committee’ was set up, and Qom turned into a political and military apex, against the Russian and British powers. But after innumerable differences, came under the hold of the Russian forces in the year 1915.
today, Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiite sect both in Iran and round the globe. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.) are prominent features of this flourishing city.
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Historical Monuments
Tombs
Ali-ebne Babvaih Qomi Tomb, Qom
The same is located to the east of the old cemetery of Babelan which is to the east of the Eram Avenue. This is the tomb of Abol Hassan Ali Ebnal Hossein Ebne Babvaih Qomi (date of demise 329 A.H.). The said is the father of Sheikh Saduq. The mausoleum is a four paneled structure, and each side has been improvised with an area for the elite. Its dome is a relic from the Safavid era, adorned with turquoise colored tiles and sacred names of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and his son-in-law.
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Baq-e-Gonbad Sabz Mausoleums, Qom
In the vicinity of the ‘Baq-e-Gonbad Sabz’, which is a small garden to the east of the city, are three relics dating to the 8th century A.H. This vicinity is reputedly known as Darvazeh Kashan and so too its domes. According to inscriptions two of these are the tombs of ancient commanders from the Ali Safi household in the 8th century A.H., and the third dome is also of the same period according to historical records. The inhabitants of Qom take these three structures to be the tombs of Sa’ad, Saeid and Masoud, great Arab personalities, who enlivened Qom in the Islamic era.
The main characteristics of the three domes are as follows:
The mausoleum of Khajeh Aseeleddin in the southern most dome of the garden. The structure is a regular 12-sided one with decorative ceilings on all sides. There is a beautiful inscription in embossed ‘Tholth’ script. According to this epigraph two personalities have been laid to rest here, one being Aseeleddin of the Safi household or family, and the other his offspring Khajeh Ali Aseel, who was once the ruler of Qom.
The tomb of Khajeh Ali Safi, which lies between the two other domes, is that of the second in command in the Safi household. The structure externally is a 12-sided one, each with adorned ceilings. Here three persons have been laid to rest, one being Khajeh Jamaleddin Ali, a political and social figure of Iraq (8th century), and the other, a member of the Safi family by the name of Amir Jalaleddin, and the third Khajeh Emadeddin Mahmood Qomi, who was in charge of affairs around Qom till the year 791 A.H.
The northern dome which is an octagonal structure, lies to the north of the two structures, and due to its demolished epigraph, the owner of the tomb is unknown.
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Fathali Shah Tomb, Qom
The tomb of Fathali Shah is situated to the north of the old courtyard. This vault was repaired in the year 1245 A.H., under his instructions. Its dome is an irregular octagon, and during the reign of Nasseredin Shah the adornments of mirror work was changed to plaster work. The cornices are of marble and a biography of the monarch engraved on a marble slab in gilded script can be observed.
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Mahd-e-Oliya Tomb, Qom
Mahd-e-Oliya was the mother of Shah Abbas I. Her active presence in disposing and appointing officials as well as other affairs of the court is a stated fact. The mausoleum is situated to the west and rear of that of Mohammad Shah. This structure is cubical in shape with embossed and beautiful plaster work.
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Shah Abbas II Tomb, Qom
The said tomb is located to the south west of the shrine, and is spectacular from architectural point of view. An inscription here reveals the date 1077 A.H.
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Other Tombs, Qom
The most important tombs of the province are: The tomb of Mohammad Shah, to the west of the old courtyard; the tomb of Mostowfi, to the north east of the old courtyard; the tombs of Shah Soleiman and Shah Safi, in the vicinity of the Astaneh museum; the tomb of Akhund Molla Mehdi Naraqi, in Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Avenue; the tomb of Ayatollah Borujerdi, in the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Allameh Tabatabaie, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Ayatollah Marashi Najafi, in Ayatollah Najafi Avenue; the tomb of Ayatollah Sadr, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Parveen Etesami, in the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Ayatollah Golpayegani, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; the tomb of the martyred Ayatollah Morteza Motahari, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; and the tomb of Ayatollah Abdol Karim Haiyeri, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine.
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Historical Caravansaries
Atabaki Caravansary, Qom
This caravansary is located on the Qom – Kashan Road, and was planned on a four-porch style. Though this caravansary is of the Qajar period, its architecture bears a strong resemblance to the Safavid era. There are two annexes in the southern section. The materials used for the construction are stone, brick and sun baked bricks. Its towers are adorned such that they are worth taking note of.
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Aveh Caravansary, Qom
This caravansary is located to the south of the Qom – Saveh Road. This brick structure, related to the Saljuqi era, and was planned on a four porch basis. In the four corners of the courtyard of the same are four chambers with arched ceilings, but their areas and material used for the walls differ. Alcoves can be noted within the walls of these chambers, and these seem to be locations for wall heaters. In the central portion of the structure, is a stairway leading to an underground water reservoir with two air ventilators.
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Pasangan Caravansary, Qom
This caravansary is en route between Qom and Kashan. The same is a valuable relic of the 13th century A.H.
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Qal’eh Sangi Caravansary, Qom
The same is located on the Qom – Ray Road, 35 km. to the northwest of Qom. This caravansary has been planned on a four-porch style. The structure is mainly of stone and dates to the Safavid era. This disintegrated structure has four semi-circular towers on the western and eastern sides.
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Other Caravansaries, Qom
These are as follows: The Kenar Gerd Caravansary on Tehran – Qom Road, and related to the Safavid era. Dehkadeh Talab Caravansary on Qom – Arak Road, related to the Saljuqi and Safavid periods. The Sefid Ab Caravansary located to the east of the Salt Lake, related to the Safavid and Qajar periods. Baqer Abad Caravansary on Qom – Tehran Road, and of the Qajar era. The Pol-e-Dalak Caravansary on the Qom – Tehran Road, related to the Qajar period.
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Old Houses and City Sectors
Astaneh Old Sector, Qom
In this quarter or sector of Qom, which is one of the historical localities, the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.) is located. In the same vicinity there is the large and small cemetery of Arg, houses to its west, a small, the water reservoir of Seyed Arab, the houses of Amin-ol-Soltani and other interesting remnants.
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Eshq Ali Sector, Qom
The Qazi ice house is located here, besides the Lakhast School. This area comprises of streets such as Baq-e-Qazi, Sang Tarasha, Darvisha, and Lab Chal. Then there is the Golshan bath, the Bazazha and Kucheh Tarmini Caravansaries till the Chal Arabistan locality which is included in this sector.
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Haj Qoli Khan House, Qom
This house is in the old network of the city of Qom, in a locality reputedly known as Chaharmardan. According to its structural characteristics and information obtained from the former tenants, this structure is related to the late Qajar period. But its south facing chambers and areas, which bear a still further archaic effect, date over 120 years. The entrance of this edifice is a short one with an arched ceiling similar to that of the roman architecture, worked in brick. The same gives way to a six-sided vestibule and corridor in the northern front, leading to the central courtyard.
The most interesting feature of this five-door building is the eastern side, which has two wind trappers that are in connection with the external areas as well as the basement. Furthermore, the northern front, with its six doors and porch with columns of stone, are vital aspects of this building. In regards to the artistic works and adornments, the building boasts of wooden doors, turreted roof, wind trappers, and carved pillars.
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Imam Khomeini House, Qom
The said house in the city of Qom is a simple double storied structure, along with a basement and a south-facing courtyard. The hall to the east was the venue of speeches by the Imam when he was residing there. The building dates to the early current century, and now is considered a valuable relic. Hordes of visitors and tourists pay a visit to this vicinity.
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Jame’ Mosque Sector, Qom
At the tail end of this quarter is the old square in the city center, at the termination of which is the Darvazeh of Ray or Ray gateway. The old bazaar, Lacheen Bek passage, the Jame’ Mosque and Naseri school are all located in this area.
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Molla Sadra House, Qom
The house of the great Iranian philosopher of the 11th century, Molla Sadra is situated in Kehak of Qom. The structure is related to the Safavid period, and was renovated according to its original style of architecture in the year 1997. It has a domed ceiling, at the apex of which is colored panes to let the rays in. On the four sides of the premises are four corridors.
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Seyedan Sector, Qom
Located in this vicinity is the Sultan Sharif Street, where there is the Mirza Abu Talib water reservoir. Besides there is the Hamzeh Ebne Moosa Mausoleum, Shahzadeh Hamzeh square, Old Square, the Do Minareh Qiasieh School and a section of the southern portion of the Old Square is situated in this vicinity.
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Other Old Houses and City Sectors, Qom
The same are as follows: The Zand house (Haj Ali Khan), in the ancient city center, and in the Chaharmardan sector, related to the late Qajar period; The old sector of Loudid with the Haj Bala water reservoir and mosque, at the end of which is the Lab Chal alley; The Chaharmardan sector includes the Baqcheh-ye-Kollah Mal and the Imamzadeh Shah Hamzeh; The Sang Band locality with Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Ahmad Qasem and the Haj Hassan water reservoir; The Moosian locality which includes the Sang Siyah passage and the end of which is the gateway of the city; The Essaqieh locality which includes the Khakh Faraj gateway, Challeh Khoroos, and Bajak. In addition to the Baq Sepand sector which are the old localities of Qom city.
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Old Religious Science Schools
Feizieh Religious Science School, Qom
The said is one of the famous centers of theology related to the Shiite sect. This school took the place of the already established ‘Astaneh School’ in the mid 13th century, and was founded in the Safavid era. The school has four porches and is a double storied structure with 40 chambers on the lower floor, (Qajar period), and 40 chambers on the upper floor, built in the 14th century A.H. The ancient sector of the school is the southern porch, dating back to 939 A.H., adorned with beautiful tile work of the Safavid age. This vicinity is known as the entrance and archaic courtyard of the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.).
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Jahangir Khan School, Qom
The same is located in the eastern section of the city, and is a school of the Safavid era. The structure went under repair during the Qajar period; thence it came to be known by the same name. Though this school is small, it is one of the reputed schools of Qom, nurturing many learned scholars from old times. The same was renovated during the period of Fathali Shah, and lately in the year 1994, during the times of Ayatollah Borujerdi. It is said that due to intricate architectural efforts this structure is unique and an outstanding one in Iran.
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Qiasieh Religious Science School, Qom
The above mentioned school is located near the old square of the city, and due to the renovation and development of the city, is situated in Azar Avenue. The structure of this school is related to the early mid 9th century (830 A.H.). The facade of this structure stands to an elevation of 12 m. flanked by two porches with false arched ceilings. Plaster work, inscriptions and holy verses can be noted. The minarets have been delicately worked with diamond shaped tiles, and intricate plasterwork adorns the porch and arches.
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Razavieh School, Qom
According to historical facts, the same was the lodging of the 8th Imam of the Shiites during the presence of His Holiness to the city of Qom. The area near this vicinity is famously known as the Shah-e-Khorassan locality. On the premises of this school is a well which it is said that the 8th Imam (A.S.) bathed with its water. This structure has a tall porch, mosque and 24 chambers. Due to road construction nearly half of these evidences have been demolished, and presently only a minor portion remains.
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Seateh School, Qom
According to a historical narration, this structure was used as a place for religious practices and prayers by Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.) during her presence in the city of Qom. In this sacred vicinity a beautiful mosque and chambers for novices have been built. The same has been adorned with beautiful mirror work currently and is located in the Mir Square sector of the city of Qom.
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Old Bazaars
Qom Bazaar, Qom
The archaic bazaar of Qom comprises of two sectors – the old and new ones. The old segment with its valuable surrounding structures lies to the east of Taleqani Avenue, prolonging from the limits of Paminar towards the north. The new sector of bazaar is an extension of this route running northwards. The old bazaar and its surrounding buildings date to the pre-Safavid period, but the architecture, layout, general network and arcades of the new sector are mostly of the Safavid and Qajar periods. The important bazaars are as follows:
The old bazaar section is comprised of an aggregate of the entrance ofRazavieh School, Sabuniha Mosque, Chehel Sotune Mosque and porch and the minarets of the remnants of Qiasieh School.
The new bazaar section is comprised of an aggregate of the surrounding alleys and the Haj Asqar Khan Bath. This vicinity is the commercial area of the city. The buildings in the surroundings pertaining to religious venues are active and are being utilized. Some of the sectors of the bazaar date to the Saljuqi and Eilkhani periods. Part of these alleys and schools of the aggregate are endowed.
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Other Historical Monuments
500 Year Old Cypress Tree, Qom
Within 6 km. to the east of Qom, and near the tomb of Hadi Gorgabi Jamkaran is a cypress tree. The same is also famously known as the Hadi Mehdi cypress. Being 500 years old, this tree is to the girth of 3 m. and rises to an elevation of 13 m.
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Hashti Building, Qom
The said building is near the mausoleum of Khak Faraj. In the midst of this structure is a well with a hillock on it. There are two theories related to this vicinity. The first is that the Hajar-ol-Asvad (or the black stone) in Mecca, was transferred from here to the Kaba. The second theory is that this well was dug so as to gain water, but due to an earthquake the well was set ablaze (without the use of fuel). It is due to this reason that the belief goes that one of the three largest fire-temples of the Zoroastrians was located in this vicinity.
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Religious Monuments
Old Mosques
Mausoleums and Imamzadehs
Old Mosques
Fatemieh (Khanom) Mosque, Qom
The same is also one of the renounced mosques of Qom, and was established with facilitation by a charitable donor, a highly respected woman whose tomb lies in a special chamber alongside the mosque. This mosque has a large water reservoir and various beautiful carpets. The mosque in addition has a library that is used by the pupils of Hazrat Jafar Ebne Mohammad (A.S.). Besides being utilized for prayers, this mosque conducts religious instruction too.
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Imam Hassan Askari Mosque, Qom
This is the oldest mosque of the province and is located in the Astaneh Avenue. At present there is no sign of any remnants of the main structure which relates to the 3rd century A.H. Its current construction is a renovation of the old one. The same is also reputedly known as the Atiq Mosque and also the Jame’ Atiq Mosque and bears special architectural effects.
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Qom A’zam Mosque, Qom
This mosque is situated to the western front of the Astaneh of the Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.). The same was constructed by the efforts of Ayatollah Borujerdi in the year 1374 A.H. Due to its loftiness this mosque was named A’zam (Grand). It has three porches and its domed nocturnal area is adorned throughout with tile work, and is placed to the south of the courtyard. To the east of the aggregate of A’zam Mosque is the Ballasar Mosque and the old courtyard of the Holy Shrine; whereas, the southwest and south faces the Sahel Avenue and interconnected to the treasury of Hazrat Masoomeh shrine.
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Qom Jame’ Mosque, Qom
The said mosque has been constructed on a rectangular plan. The main skeleton of the dome is related to the early mid 6th century and ranks second in antiquity to the old Jame’ mosque of Qom. According to valid historical records the current dome dates back to 529 A.H. Its tall south facing porch and colored encrustation of plasterwork of the dome is related to the Safavid period. The construction of the northern porch and nocturnal areas in an east-west direction are of the Qajar era.
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Saheb-ol Zaman Mosque, Jamkaran
The said mosque is located at a distance of 6 km. from the city of Qom, on the Qom – Kashan Road. The same receives pilgrims both nationally and internationally. Regarding the date of this mosque, there is a narration, according to which on a Tuesday eve, on 17th of Ramadan (the holy month of fasting) of the year 393, a group of people assemble at the residence of ‘Sheikh Hassan Ebne Mosleh Jamkarani’, and ask the Sheikh to abide the command of Imam Mahdi (A.S.) (the 12th Imam or Redeemer, as believed by the Shiite sect); and told him that he was called by the Imam.
People accompanied the Sheikh to the vicinity of the present Jamkaran mosque. On his arrival Sheikh saw a young man of about 30 years of age sitting on a carpeted seat, leaning against cushions, and a sage known as Prophet Khezr (A.S.) was next to him. Imam Mahdi (A.S.) addressed the Sheikh by name, and asked him to go to Hassan Moslem which had a land under cultivation, and tell him that this land was sacred and there should be no more farming performed there.
The Sheikh asked the Imam to give him a sign so that people would believe him. Hazrat Mahdi (A.S.) asked him to complete his mission while the appropriate signs would be granted in time. He further commanded to ask people to convey prayers there as the prayers recited in this vicinity are equivalent to that performed in Mecca or the Kaba. Thus the holy mosque of Sahebol Zaman was founded in Jamkaran, and today is one of the extremely unique and interesting sites of Qom Province, drawing hordes of pilgrims especially on auspicious dates.
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Other Old Mosques, Qom
These are as follows: The Imam Hassan Mojtaba (A.S.) Mosque on the Tehran – Qom Road; Takiyeh Aqa Seyed Hassan in Ayatollah Taleqani Avenue; Takiyeh-ye-Yazdiha in bazaar; Maidan-e-Kohneh Mosque in the Old Square (Maidan-e-Kohneh-e- Qom); Hosseinieh-ye-Shohada in Shohada Avenue; Hosseiniyeh-ye-Najafiha in Enqelab Avenue; Hosseinieh-ye-Ayatollah Najafi in Shahid Montazari Avenue; Takiyeh Seyedan in Enqelab Avenue.
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Mausoleums and Imamzadehs
Hazrat Ma’soomeh Holy Shrine, Qom
The aggregate of the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh is in the city center ofQom, and is considered to be one of the largest and most valuable relics of Islamic architecture of Iran and the world which bears precious remnants from various centuries. This aggregate has been constructed on mausoleum of Hazrat Fatemah reputedly known as Ma’soomeh the daughter of Imam Moosa Kazem (P.B.U.H.), and sister of Imam Reza (P.B.U.H.).
After Hazrat Ma’soomeh’s sacred corpse was laid to rest, Moosa Ebne Khazraj erected a straw mat shelter over the tomb. This disintegrated with the passage of time and later the inhabitants constructed a tower like structure made of plaster and brick on the sacred tomb. This was the reason that when any woman from Moosa Ebne Mabraqeh household passed away, she was buried alongside the sacred tomb of Hazrat Ma’soomeh, thus a cupola was formed which was the burial site of four persons. In due time, two other cupolas were erected alongside the prior ones. In the year 447 A.H., Mir Abol Fazl, the minister of Toqrol, who was a pious person, erected a cupola raising to the height of 14 m. upon the same three other cupolas.
In the Safavid period, the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh had four courtyards placed in succession, and pilgrims used to enter from one and exit from the other. In Qajar era, Fathali Shah paid special attention to this sacred vicinity and most of its current adornments are related to the said period. Presently the Holy Shrine consists of the following structures:
The sacred shrine: The current structure was constructed by Shah Begum in the year 925 A.H. It is an irregular octagon with eight platforms. After this part there is the dome and ceiling adorned with decorative arches. There is a beautifulinscription throughout engraved in the ‘Tholth’ script in a gilded form on a background of turquoise and white tiles. These verses are sacred. There is also another inscription in embossed ‘Tholth’ script and worked with plasterwork with verses from the Holy Qoran. This inscription belongs to the date of 1251 A.H. On the structure is the dome rising to an elevation of 16 m. which was constructed by the orders of Fathali Shah in place of the former dome in the years 1215-1218 A.H.
Due to the fact that the sacred tomb is placed between two sepulchers today, is hidden from sight. This tomb is worked with beautiful tile work in the mid 7th century A.H., and such adornment is worthy of praise and an excellent piece of craftsmanship. To the south of which after crossing the southern porch, there is a large dome, and this area is commonly known as the ‘woman’s courtyard’, and now is called the ‘mosque museum’.
The domed ceiling and altar are worked in artistic tile work, besides the epigraphs which adorn it. In the northern direction of this is the gold porch, constructed by the efforts of Shah Begum, the daughter of Shah Esmail in the year 925 A.H. This porch has tile worked cornices related to the Safavid era and two minarets. To the east of the shrine is also a porch reaching a height equivalent to the gold porch known as the ‘Mirror Porch’ and the said displays a fine master piece of art and architecture of the Qajar period. Facing this porch is a covered area which excels in beauty.
The new courtyard: The same is located to the east of the shrine, and was constructed by Mirza Ali Asqar Khan Amin-ol-Sultan. Surrounding this courtyard are more than 30 large and small mausoleums, the most important of which is his tomb. This courtyard is in two connected segments. The larger sector is an irregular octagon, and the smaller section is in form of a projection amidst the eastern side and is of five sides.
Around the courtyard to the upper portion of the porches there are inscriptions of sun baked brick tiles with azure backgrounds displaying poetic verses. This courtyard, besides its mirror porch has three other porches to the east, north and south. The eastern porch is the most delicately designed of the three. Its ceiling is worked in an arched style adorned with gilded and colored tiles. On this porch are two minarets and a clock tower. The porch was flanked by two corridors which currently are used as vaults. The new court has three tiled entrances to the east, north and south of the courtyard.
The Atiq or old courtyard: This courtyard was built under the instructions of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, in place of the two smaller courtyards of the Safavid era. To the south of this vicinity is the gold porch with porches on two sides of it. On the other sides there are mausoleums, such as that of the two Qajar sovereigns. Surrounding this courtyard and on the porches are inscriptions with poetical verses inspired by the decorative dome in the year 1218 A.H. In this courtyard, to the north, is its majestic entrance from the Shah Tahmasb Safavid reign, which is near the Qiasieh School. The northern porch of the courtyard has a vaulted ceiling, but is simple in style otherwise being constructed of gypsum. This is opposite the gold porch. The southern porch however, is a fine relic of the Safavid period adorned with poetical inscriptions.
Tombs of the monarchs: In this aggregate there are various tombs belonging to that of monarchs and princes of the Safavid and Qajar periods. These remnants are considered the historical and artistic relics of this vicinity.
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Imamzadeh Ahmad-ebne Eshaq, Qom
The above mentioned is situated in the Old Square of Qom (Maidan Kohneh). This is the tomb of one of the grand children of the 7th Imam (A.S.). The Imamzadeh was put under repairs, and thereby expanded in the year 1317 A.H., during the reign of Mozaffareddin Shah. The original shrine of the Imamzadeh dates back to the period of pre-Safavid dynasty. The structure is four-sided both internally and externally. A turreted effect architectural style relevant to the period of Shah Tahmasb Safavid is observed in this mausoleum. In the center of the structure is the tomb with a latticed worked wooden sepulcher on it.
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Imamzadeh Ali-ebne Ja’far (Dar Behesht), Qom
The same is related to the early 8th century A.H. It is an octagonal structure with a conical dome. The porch was added to the building in the Qajar era. The adornments of the mausoleum are equivalent in rank to other known remnants of the province. Its plasterwork is worth mentioning as the same is relevant to the 8th century A.H., and is a masterpiece of that age. Its gilded tiles and cornices that display about 94 humans, and floral and animal motives besides sacred inscriptions in ‘Naskh’ script can be noted here. The gilded altar and arched ceilings to the south of the mausoleum, constructed in the year 734 A.H., today adorn the national treasury of the country.
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Imamzadeh Esmaeil (Shahzadeh Esmaeil), Qom
The same is located on the skirts of Bidqan, at a distance of 18 km. from Qom. It is one of the oldest pilgrimage sites of the province. This is the mausoleum of three personalities being, Shahzadeh Esmaeil and his offspring Hamzeh and Shahzadeh Mohammad. Historical relics in this Imamzadeh are named as its priceless doors, beautiful tiles and carved chest that has been placed on the tomb. The structure comprises of a mausoleum, dome, porch, courtyard and mosque. The mausoleum, which has been constructed of stone and gypsum, is relevant to the 7th century A.H. Externally, the structure is cylindrical, but internally turns into a quadrangle.
The cornices of this structure resemble the Mongol style, worked in octagonal sun baked tiles. On the fringes of which are inscriptions revealing the date of 668 A.H. The dome of the mausoleum was from the period of Shah Esmaeil Safavid, but due to later repairs acquired a pyramid shape with 16 panels. The Imamzadeh has a decorative pulpit to the date of 922 A.H.
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Imamzadeh Ma’soomeh, Qom
The same is in the Kehak Qahestan village, and at a distance of 24 km. fromQom. The present structure was constructed by the efforts of Shah Begum, the daughter of Shah Esmail. The said is the tomb of one of the descendants of Imam Moosa Kazem (P.B.U.H.). It is an irregular octagon externally, but internally is square in shape. It has been constructed of stone and gypsum. To each side of the structure an area for the elite has been procured, from each of which a door leads to the outside and in front of these doors are the halls.
The outer dome is a short pyramid shaped one with 16 panels and adorned with turquoise colored tiles. To the three sides of the mausoleum are the halls which are connected to each other. Flanking the northern hall, are two spaces with an eye-catching view. This layout was added to the mausoleum in Safavid era. today artistic relics dated 979 A.H. adorn the treasures of the Fin Garden of Kashan.
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Imamzadeh Moosa Mobarqeh, Qom
Imamzadeh Moosa Mobarqeh is the offspring of Hazrat Imam Mohammad Taqi (A.S.), who lived in Qom in the year 256 A.H. His sisters also migrated to the city and were deceased here. They were laid to rest alongside the sacred tomb of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.). Moosa Mobarqeh passed away in the year 296 A.H. and was buried in this site. In respect to the artistic remnants of this mausoleum, are the corridors of the mausoleum related to the 9th century A.H.
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Imamzadeh Shah Ebrahim, Qom
This structure is situated in the pastures of Shah Ebrahim, 24 km. from Qom, and the present structure is related to the Safavid age. The dome rises to a height of 7 m. and is adorned with turquoise colored tiles. The entrance of the mausoleum is to the west and has a porch to its opposite. Internally the structure is a quadrangle, with additional half arches in the four corners, thereby changing its shape to a sphere. The ancient relic of this Imamzadeh consist of its carved wooden door dating to 1015 A.H., a piece of carved wood belong to 1015 A.H., which is affixed on the southern porch near the entrance, and four engravings which are affixed to the southern portion of the western porch.
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Imamzadeh Shah Hamzeh, Qom
Shahzadeh Hamzeh is the offspring of Moosa Ebne Ja’far and the sibling of Imam Reza. This Imamzadeh is located in the Old Square of Qom and is highly honored by the inhabitants. This structure has a very interesting plan. Its entrance doors of the courtyard open at such an angle so as to face the eastern and western sides. The courtyard is rectangular in shape surrounding it are arched roofs and adorned in the roman style. One of the spectacular adornments of this mausoleum is the entrance porch to the shrine, which reveals a row of inscriptions worked on a background of azure, and dates back to 1301 A.H. (The year that this structure was erected).
The checked white tiles on the walls of the porch are that of the Qajar era. Its ceiling has spiral effects together with conical shapes, and its dome has a spherical form at its apex. Internally and below the dome is constructed in a vaulted style with gypsum. Near this Imamzadeh is another Imamzadeh by the name of Imamzadeh Shah Ahmad, who is believed to be the sibling of Shahzadeh Hamzeh.
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Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Abu Ahmad, Qom
The said structure is on the outskirts of the gateway of Ray, and to the north east of Qom. The same accounts as a very ancient vestige of the city of Qom, and is the tomb of one of the descendants of Hazrat Ali (A.S.). This structure underwent repairs and was adorned in the year 932 A.H. The mausoleum displays plasterwork while tomb displays tile work. There is also an inscription of sun baked bricks in the Tholth script and of the same date. The inscription on the tomb has been uniquely adorned in oriental style, and with sacred verses in the Tholth script. The dome of the mausoleum is a simple 6-paneled pyramid shaped one and is of brick.
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Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Ahmad Qasem, Qom
The above mentioned is near the Qal’eh Gateway of the city to the south east ofQom. This is a relic of the Ali Safi household, and on the whole is an example of the unique and spectacular plasterwork which was at its peak during the said period. The same was constructed in the year 780 A.H. The facade of the structure was octagonal, but in the upper portion turns to a 16 sided structure. The dome is arched and made of brick, but in later years a cupola was added to this. On a tablet of the tomb, which is now kept in the Berlin Museum, and is known as ‘The Altar of the Qom Mosque’, and dates back to 663 A.H. in the month of Safar (a month of the Muslim calendar) can be observed.
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Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Zakaria, Qom
Between the villages of Issa Abad and Maidanak of Khalajestan, flows a small river which has a small dam constructed by brick, gypsum and cobbled stones alongside. This dam is the foundation of the Imamzadeh that has been constructed on it. From the external view the structure is octagonal, though internally it is a quadrangle, to each side of which is an area for the elite. Internally the walls are white washed and adorned with colored paintings, along with archaic arched sun-baked and colored tiles.
The alcoves within have changed the quadrangle into a circular shape. In front of the mausoleum and under its porch is a door with old inscriptions related to the Safavid era. Amidst these inscriptions the name of Imam Ali’ (P.B.U.H.) in the Tholth script can be observed. The beautiful dome of the mausoleum is also related to the Safavid age, and the same is adorned with tiles of various forms.
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Imamzadeh Soleiman, Qom
This Imamzadeh is the burial site of one of the descendants of Imam Sajad (P.B.U.H.) and is situated at a distance of 2 km. north of the village of Sarom Abad and 26 km. south east of Qom. Externally, the structure is made of stone and gypsum, and at a later date a porch was added to it. Internally, the structure is an irregular quadrangle with two entrances. The flooring is of tiles, and its current dome is of clay, with a rod like structure at its apex, covered with tiles. To the east of the mausoleum are two small and historical tablets of black stone. The same is engraved with the ‘Nastaliq’ script and reveals the name of the demised and the dates 970 and 989A.H. It seems that the primary construction of this mausoleum is related to the Eilkhani period.
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Imamzadeh Sultan Mohammad Sharif, Qom
This tomb belong to one of the descendants of the 4th Imam of the Shiite sect, is situated in a locality by the same name; and near the Qal’eh Gateway of the city. This structure was a fine example of the architectural effects of the 9th and 10th centuries A.H., which unfortunately turned to ruins a few decades ago. today, the only remaining relic of those times is an azure colored tablet on the tomb, which is a remnant from the 7th and 8th centuries.
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Sheikh Aba Salat Mausoleum, Qom
The same lies to the north east of Qom, and adjoins the former gateway of Ray. The brick made mausoleum is simple in style and a relic of the Safavid era. It is situated in the corner of a large vicinity, and is said to be the tomb of one of the scholars of Qom in the early centuries. Internally, the structure stands to a height of 8 m. and is square in shape, with an elevated entrance. Its dome is arched and is made of brick. Various writings can be seen on the western wall of the mausoleum dating back to the 12th and 13th centuries A.H.
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Other Imamzadehs, Qom
Other Imamzadehs and pilgrimage sites of Qom Province are as follows:
Imamzadeh Seyed Sarbaksh, in Azar Avenue related to the second half of the 8th century A.H. Imamzadeh Abol Abbas Ahmad near Imamzadeh ‘in heaven’ related to the 8th century; Imamzadeh Bavareh in the village of Fardo related to the pre-Safavid era; Imamzadeh Halimeh Khatoon, 12 km. south of Qom; Imamzadeh Sakineh Khatoon within 30 km. to the east of Qom related to the pre-Safavid era; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Ahmad and Ali Haras related to the Qajar era and located in Khak Faraj; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Jafar Qarib, 6 km. east of Qom related to Fath Ali Shah Qajar; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Jafar in the Geev village; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Seyed Ali, north of Qom; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Taher in the Taqrood village; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Abbas on the outskirts of the Jondab village related to the pre-Safavid period; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Abbas and Haft Imamzadeh near the Varjan Village of Qom; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Mohsen related to the 10th century; Imamzadeh Abdollah near Qal’eh Sadri Qom related to the Qajar era; Imamzadeh Safoora in Khak Faraj; Imamzadeh Fazel on the mountain overlooking the Beed Hind Village; Baba Mosafer mausoleum to the north east of Qom, near the Ray Gateway related to the Safavid period; the Chahar Imamzadeh Shohreh mausoleum and Molla Aqa on the outskirts of the city of Qom related to the Safavid age; Khadijeh Khatoon mausoleum; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Ebrahim and Mohammad in Mazdijan and to the west of Qom, related to the Eilkhanian period; Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Essaq; Imamzadeh Sheesh Imamzadeh in the outskirts of the Seif Abad related to the Safavid era; Imamzadeh Teiyaeb and Taher on the Qom-Sarajeh road related to the 8th century; Imamzadeh Fardoo in the village of Fardoo, district of of Qahestan.
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Natural Attractions
Lakes 
Rivers 
Altitudes and Summits
Protected Zones 
Caves 
Lakes
In respect to other parts of Iran, Qom Province is poor from the point of view of natural attractions and recreational areas. The province is limited to two lakes and rivers. Though the fringes of these regions lack the suitable amenities for recreational purposes, some areas on the other hand offer a scope for such activities. The important lakes and rivers of the province are:
Hozeh Sultan Lake, Qom
The said lake covers an area of approximately 2,400 sq. km. and is located to the east of the township of Qom. This lake is reputedly known by the names of Saveh, Qom and Shahi Lake. The length and width of the same is about 80 km. and 30 km. respectively.
Due to rainfall and additional water from melting snows, the volume extent of the water of the lake increases, and floods the land surrounding the rush brakes and salt marshes, bringing into presence a large lake to the length of 80 km. known as the Hozeh Sultan Lake or Salt Lake; whereas, there is a natural decrease in capacity when climatic conditions differ. Various rivers flow into this lake, after generally crossing the salt marshes of the surrounding regions.
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Salt Lake, Qom
The said lake is in actual fact a part of the salt desert of Iran and is located to the east of Qom. It is a section of an ancient lake, currently dried up and rich in mineral sedimentation due to gradual evaporation. This salt desert lies amidst the provinces of Khorassan, Sistan, Qom, Esfahan and Yazd. The Salt Lake contains water only in the winter months, whereas in summer a crust of salt attracts attention. This region experiences an extremely dry climate and the difference between day and night temperatures range till approximately 70 C. This difference in temperatures makes the rocks of the surrounding elevations crack, crumpling into mounds of sand, and air currents cause them to move.
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Rivers
Qamar Rood River, Qom
The said river takes its source in the Zard Kooh of Bakhtiyari, and after following a long course, flows into the Salt Lake. This river was primarily known as ‘Darband’. In the vicinity of ‘Akhteh Khoon’, to the south west of Golpayegan, a dam has been constructed on it. The Qamar Rood River flows within the limits of the townships of Faridan, Golpayegan,, Mahalat, Delijan and Qom, irrigating the lands therein.
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Qarah Chay River, Qom
This river takes its source in the wetlands of Haft Emarat, Bollaq Jak, Abbas Abad and Panjeh Ali in the borders of Arak, before flowing into the township of Arak. After irrigating lands here, and following an east-west direction, it enters the township of Tafresh. After gaining water from other rivers and after crossing southern Saveh, in the vicinity of Pol-e-Dalak, adjoins the Qamar Rood and at a distance of 76 km. to the east of Qom, flows into the Qom Lake.
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Altitudes and Summits
The elevations of Qom are a continuation of the Central Mountain Ranges of Iran. A section of which begins from the Alvand and prolongs approximately to and runs parallel to the Zagross Mountains, terminating in Baluchestan. The heights of Qom Province include a part of the mountainous region of Ardhal. The said area is located in the townships of Qom, south of Qom, Kashan and Mahalat. The important summits of Qom Province, which reach an elevation of over 2,500 m. and are part of the mountainous terrain of Ardhal are:
Khasnak Mountain, Qom
This mountain with a height of about 2,777 m. is located 54 km. southwest ofQom and to the south of the Sanjgan village. The Zavarian and Salman rivers gain their sources in this elevation. The Qom – Arak railroad passes through the eastern and southern skirts of this region.
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Larha Mountain, Qom
The said mountain reaches a height of 3,109 m. and is located at a distance of 51 km. south of Qom. The Vasnoveh River gains a major portion of its water in this vicinity. The Lar Mountains joins the Gorge Mountains in southwest.
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Palangabi (Palang Abi) Mountain, Qom
The same with a height of about 3,154 m. is situated at a distance of 48 km. southwest of Qom. Various rivers such as the Ravanj, Dareh Baq and Azna take their sources here. The Palangan Mountains join the Qaleaq summits from the east.
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Sultan Sa’d Shah Mountain, Qom
The said mountain with an altitude of 2,930 m. is located at a distance of 46 km. south of Qom, and to the south of the Khaveh Village. The Vasnoveh and Fardo rivers take their sources in these mountains.
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Protected Zones
Desert Attractions, Qom Province
The Province of Qom is located along the western part of the desert, and a section of the Kavir (Desert) National Park is within the limits of this province. This characteristic has created a special background in respect to the said vicinity and is important from the aspect of tourism. Climatically, the desert region can be said to be a pleasant area for about six months in the year. The desert sky at nights can be an unforgettable sight, as well as the mysterious mirages, mounds of earth, black and white sands, crusts of salt and wonderful landscapes all merge to form a glorious panorama.
In addition to this, there are historical and archaeological monuments such as caravansaries, palaces or castles, water reservoirs, subterranean canals (qanats) and pilgrimage sites that indicate the presence of human life from the past in the desert area. A part of the northern and eastern limits of the province lie within the desert sector, running in a northwest to southeast direction. Its deepest part is in the latter, known as the Sea of Salt.
To the northwest of this region are the volcanic elevations of Saveh and Zarand. Whereas, to the southwest are the altitudes of Saveh, Qom and Kashan. In the northeast stand the heights of Rood Shoor, Davazdah Imam and Siyah Kooh. Moreover, to the southeast are the elevations of Maranjab, Sefid Ab, Talkheh and Malek Abad. These elevations are not connected to each other and there are crevices and plains in between, interconnecting this sector to its surroundings. The flood canal is to the west and gains an outlet from the Qarah Chay valley. In this sector, there are elevations running parallel to each other in a northwest and southeast direction, and are of a volcanic material related to the Cenozoic period.
Tourism can play an important role in this segment of the desert of Iran which lies within the limits of Qom Province and is near the Province of Tehran. These can be related to natural desert attractions, a communicating system between Tehran – Qom, the ancient and historical routes and that of Pol-e-Dalak.
The Tehran – Qom communicating network was constructed in 1883 A.D. by Atabak. En route, historical bridges and caravansaries were present and with the passage of time disintegrated. Such relics are named as, the caravansaries of Hauz and monastery, Hozeh Castle and the Dalak Bridge.
The ancient and historical routes are generally related to three periods, the most archaic of which are of the Sassanid era. Such examples are the Esfahan – Ray Road, and the remnants of a route running from the south of Hozeh Soltan, (between the Dalak Bridge and Mohammad Abad of Kaj). This route which was linked by a bridge on the river or flood canal, was constructed during the Sassanid era, and was considered an important mode of communication between the cities of Ray and Esfahan.
The remnants of the Dalak Bridge stand on the Qarah Chay River. The same is said to be a construction of the Safavid age and had 16 arches. This bridge was a vital and strategic link of the times between the cities of Qom and Mashhad.
Another ancient route is the remnant of the one which is to the north of the Siyah Kooh Mountains. The same is a flag-stone one, with a width of approximately 6-10 m. This in its own time was an important link between Esfahan and the coast of Caspian Sea. The construction of this road is related to the Safavid period or the early Qajar era.
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Kavir (Desert) National Park and Wildlife, Qom
A section of Qom Province, specially the vicinity of the Qamar Rood village lies within the limits of the National Desert Park. The same is almost a virgin area, with valuable specimens of wildlife and various herbal species in the country. The Kavir National Park is an example of desert and arid type ecosystems. Its scanty rainfall has given rise to some herbal species which have adapted to and withstand the existing conditions. Wildlife species have accustomed themselves to the meager resources in an outstanding and surprising manner, and their preservation has aided them greatly to increase in number.
From the aspect of a survey on the desert ecosystem and the identification of adaptation mechanisms of herbal and wildlife species to these surroundings, the Kavir National Park can be said to be such an area of survey. The vegetation covering of this park in the plains and mountainous regions, are suitable refuges for various species of wildlife. Species of wildlife in the Park are as follows: antelope, deer, panther, wild ass, partridge, dull yellow partridge, flamingo, etc.
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Caves
Kehak Cave, Qom
This historical cave is one of the beautiful caves of the province and is situated 30 km. south of Qom. The same accounts as one of the archaeological and natural relics of this province. This cave has many spectacular and interesting features.
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Vashnooh Cave, Qom
The said cave is at a distance of 60 km. from Qom, in the mountainous region of Ardhal. In this vicinity four caves or pits have been identified. In one of these there is a large expanse of water. The water has seeped in through crevices in the mountain and gushes out in the form of a spring. This cave proves interesting from tourism point of view.
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Culture & Art
Museums
Special Villages
Handicrafts, Music,and Foods
Museums
Hazrat Ma’soomeh Holy Shrine Museum, Qom
The above mentioned museum is one of the ancient museums of Iran, and was inaugurated in the year 1925. This museum comprises of two large halls with beautiful tile worked cornices, and the same is situated alongside the courtyard of the Holy Shrine. This museum displays a fine and valuable selection being that of hand written Holy Qorans related to the 3rd century A.H. So too brocades of the Safavid period.
The carpets and rugs on display in this museum are the effects of the reputed Ostad Nematollah Jushqani of the Safavid era. These have been endowed by the Safavid monarchs to the Astaneh of the Holy Shrine. Other articles of interest are various tiles related to the early 7th century A.H. An inlaid worked chest of the Sheikh Safi mausoleum, and a golden lantern used for the burning of incense, silverware etc. are on exhibit in this museum and on public display.
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Special Villages
Hamzaqan Village, Qom
Hamzaqan is a village of the district of Khalajestan, located at a distance of 65 km. southwest of Qom. The seasonal river, Vazva, flows from south of it. The ‘Gar’ Mountains stands within 3 km. east of the ‘Shirvaroo’ Mountains in the southwest; whereas the ‘Qizlar Begi’ Mountains lie 3 km. southeast of the village. The Qahan Gorge is located at a distance of 1 km. south of this village. The presence of rivers, mountains, springs and suitable vegetation cover are the attractions of this vicinity.
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Kehak Village, Qom
The said village lies in the foothills and is located 30 km. to the south of Qom. This village has a moderate and dry climate. The most interesting feature of this vicinity is the presence of the ancient house of Molla Sadra (a famous Iranian philosopher). Besides which, there is the Kehak Cave, one of the natural and historical relics accounted for in the province. In this village there is an Imamzadeh called ‘Imamzadeh Mohammad’, which is highly respected by the inhabitants and those of the surrounding villages.
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Handicrafts, Music, and Foods
Handicrafts and Souvenirs, Qom
In Qom Province and more so in its rural areas handicrafts play an important role. Even though today it is to a lesser degree, but is still a means of earning a livelihood. The most important of these handicrafts are: carpets, brick and ceramic work, latticed work, a special type of sweet known as Sohan, rosaries, vessels of stone and gypsum, decorative articles, porcelain, silk carpets and fruits like pomegranate and fig.
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Historical Monuments
Castles
Archeological Hills
Tombs 
Historical Caravansaries
Old Houses and City Sectors
Old Religious Science Schools 
Old Bazaars 
Other Historical Monuments
Castles
Jamkaran Castle, Qom
The Jamkaran castle lies 6 km. east of Qom, and in the village of Jamkaran. This castle is also known as the Gabri castle and is a remnant of the pre-Islamic age. The same was utilized in the Islamic period too, and the inhabitants of this vicinity relate the structure to Jamshid Shah era, the Pishdadi monarch. The structure is a square one and constructed of sun-baked bricks and clay. In some sections, its current elevation rises to a height of 10 m. At present it is in a state of ruins.
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Archeological Hills
Qarah Tappeh Qom Rood Hill, Qom
The Qarah Tappeh Qom Rood hill lies at a distance of 23 km. northeast of the city of Qom, and to the southwest of the Qom Rood Village. According to the present evidences, the primary settlement in Qom Rood plains dates back to the 8th or 6th millennium B.C. This vicinity has been a territory of research studies in three phases. In these studies relics related to valuable architectural effects and a few earthenware vessels have been discovered.
The remnants date back to 4400 B.C. Qarah Tappeh which is circular in form is located on a natural hillock nestling amidst green and lush pastures. Materials utilized in this construction are clay, sun-baked bricks, an encrustation of clay and straw, gypsum and brick. The most archaic relics discovered here are from the late Stone Age, whilst the newest ones relate to the Naseri (Qajar) era. These monuments are the limits of the hillock, castle, caravansary, Imamzadeh, bridge and guiding tower. Years of research have produced such impressions that the inhabitants of this area earned their livelihood by means of agriculture and animal husbandry.
They were acquainted with building dwellings and also in architectural spheres. To mention other arts in this territory, its inhabitants were familiar with the art of sculpture and a few samples of these have come to hand. In the way of culture and industry, they made simple articles such as pins and needles by smelting copper. This in itself pin points the progressive Iranian civilization of that times in the said vicinity.
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Tombs
Ali-ebne Babvaih Qomi Tomb, Qom
The same is located to the east of the old cemetery of Babelan which is to the east of the Eram Avenue. This is the tomb of Abol Hassan Ali Ebnal Hossein Ebne Babvaih Qomi (date of demise 329 A.H.). The said is the father of Sheikh Saduq. The mausoleum is a four paneled structure, and each side has been improvised with an area for the elite. Its dome is a relic from the Safavid era, adorned with turquoise colored tiles and sacred names of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and his son-in-law.
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Baq-e-Gonbad Sabz Mausoleums, Qom
In the vicinity of the ‘Baq-e-Gonbad Sabz’, which is a small garden to the east of the city, are three relics dating to the 8th century A.H. This vicinity is reputedly known as Darvazeh Kashan and so too its domes. According to inscriptions two of these are the tombs of ancient commanders from the Ali Safi household in the 8th century A.H., and the third dome is also of the same period according to historical records. The inhabitants of Qom take these three structures to be the tombs of Sa’ad, Saeid and Masoud, great Arab personalities, who enlivened Qom in the Islamic era.
The main characteristics of the three domes are as follows:
The mausoleum of Khajeh Aseeleddin in the southern most dome of the garden. The structure is a regular 12-sided one with decorative ceilings on all sides. There is a beautiful inscription in embossed ‘Tholth’ script. According to this epigraph two personalities have been laid to rest here, one being Aseeleddin of the Safi household or family, and the other his offspring Khajeh Ali Aseel, who was once the ruler of Qom.
The tomb of Khajeh Ali Safi, which lies between the two other domes, is that of the second in command in the Safi household. The structure externally is a 12-sided one, each with adorned ceilings. Here three persons have been laid to rest, one being Khajeh Jamaleddin Ali, a political and social figure of Iraq (8th century), and the other, a member of the Safi family by the name of Amir Jalaleddin, and the third Khajeh Emadeddin Mahmood Qomi, who was in charge of affairs around Qom till the year 791 A.H.
The northern dome which is an octagonal structure, lies to the north of the two structures, and due to its demolished epigraph, the owner of the tomb is unknown.
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Fathali Shah Tomb, Qom
The tomb of Fathali Shah is situated to the north of the old courtyard. This vault was repaired in the year 1245 A.H., under his instructions. Its dome is an irregular octagon, and during the reign of Nasseredin Shah the adornments of mirror work was changed to plaster work. The cornices are of marble and a biography of the monarch engraved on a marble slab in gilded script can be observed.
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Mahd-e-Oliya Tomb, Qom
Mahd-e-Oliya was the mother of Shah Abbas I. Her active presence in disposing and appointing officials as well as other affairs of the court is a stated fact. The mausoleum is situated to the west and rear of that of Mohammad Shah. This structure is cubical in shape with embossed and beautiful plaster work.
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Shah Abbas II Tomb, Qom
The said tomb is located to the south west of the shrine, and is spectacular from architectural point of view. An inscription here reveals the date 1077 A.H.
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Other Tombs, Qom
The most important tombs of the province are: The tomb of Mohammad Shah, to the west of the old courtyard; the tomb of Mostowfi, to the north east of the old courtyard; the tombs of Shah Soleiman and Shah Safi, in the vicinity of the Astaneh museum; the tomb of Akhund Molla Mehdi Naraqi, in Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Avenue; the tomb of Ayatollah Borujerdi, in the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Allameh Tabatabaie, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Ayatollah Marashi Najafi, in Ayatollah Najafi Avenue; the tomb of Ayatollah Sadr, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Parveen Etesami, in the Holy Shrine; the tomb of Ayatollah Golpayegani, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; the tomb of the martyred Ayatollah Morteza Motahari, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine; and the tomb of Ayatollah Abdol Karim Haiyeri, in the mosque of the Holy Shrine.
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Historical Caravansaries
Atabaki Caravansary, Qom
This caravansary is located on the Qom – Kashan Road, and was planned on a four-porch style. Though this caravansary is of the Qajar period, its architecture bears a strong resemblance to the Safavid era. There are two annexes in the southern section. The materials used for the construction are stone, brick and sun baked bricks. Its towers are adorned such that they are worth taking note of.
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Aveh Caravansary, Qom
This caravansary is located to the south of the Qom – Saveh Road. This brick structure, related to the Saljuqi era, and was planned on a four porch basis. In the four corners of the courtyard of the same are four chambers with arched ceilings, but their areas and material used for the walls differ. Alcoves can be noted within the walls of these chambers, and these seem to be locations for wall heaters. In the central portion of the structure, is a stairway leading to an underground water reservoir with two air ventilators.
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Pasangan Caravansary, Qom
This caravansary is en route between Qom and Kashan. The same is a valuable relic of the 13th century A.H.
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Qal’eh Sangi Caravansary, Qom
The same is located on the Qom – Ray Road, 35 km. to the northwest of Qom. This caravansary has been planned on a four-porch style. The structure is mainly of stone and dates to the Safavid era. This disintegrated structure has four semi-circular towers on the western and eastern sides.
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Other Caravansaries, Qom
These are as follows: The Kenar Gerd Caravansary on Tehran – Qom Road, and related to the Safavid era. Dehkadeh Talab Caravansary on Qom – Arak Road, related to the Saljuqi and Safavid periods. The Sefid Ab Caravansary located to the east of the Salt Lake, related to the Safavid and Qajar periods. Baqer Abad Caravansary on Qom – Tehran Road, and of the Qajar era. The Pol-e-Dalak Caravansary on the Qom – Tehran Road, related to the Qajar period.
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Old Houses and City Sectors
Astaneh Old Sector, Qom
In this quarter or sector of Qom, which is one of the historical localities, the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.) is located. In the same vicinity there is the large and small cemetery of Arg, houses to its west, a small bazaar, the water reservoir of Seyed Arab, the houses of Amin-ol-Soltani and other interesting remnants.
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Eshq Ali Sector, Qom
The Qazi ice house is located here, besides the Lakhast School. This area comprises of streets such as Baq-e-Qazi, Sang Tarasha, Darvisha, and Lab Chal. Then there is the Golshan bath, the Bazazha and Kucheh Tarmini Caravansaries till the Chal Arabistan locality which is included in this sector.
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Haj Qoli Khan House, Qom
This house is in the old network of the city of Qom, in a locality reputedly known as Chaharmardan. According to its structural characteristics and information obtained from the former tenants, this structure is related to the late Qajar period. But its south facing chambers and areas, which bear a still further archaic effect, date over 120 years. The entrance of this edifice is a short one with an arched ceiling similar to that of the roman architecture, worked in brick. The same gives way to a six-sided vestibule and corridor in the northern front, leading to the central courtyard.
The most interesting feature of this five-door building is the eastern side, which has two wind trappers that are in connection with the external areas as well as the basement. Furthermore, the northern front, with its six doors and porch with columns of stone, are vital aspects of this building. In regards to the artistic works and adornments, the building boasts of wooden doors, turreted roof, wind trappers, and carved pillars.
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Imam Khomeini House, Qom
The said house in the city of Qom is a simple double storied structure, along with a basement and a south-facing courtyard. The hall to the east was the venue of speeches by the Imam when he was residing there. The building dates to the early current century, and now is considered a valuable relic. Hordes of visitors and tourists pay a visit to this vicinity.
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Jame’ Mosque Sector, Qom
At the tail end of this quarter is the old square in the city center, at the termination of which is the Darvazeh of Ray or Ray gateway. The old bazaar, Lacheen Bek passage, the Jame’ Mosque and Naseri school are all located in this area.
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Molla Sadra House, Qom
The house of the great Iranian philosopher of the 11th century, Molla Sadra is situated in Kehak of Qom. The structure is related to the Safavid period, and was renovated according to its original style of architecture in the year 1997. It has a domed ceiling, at the apex of which is colored panes to let the rays in. On the four sides of the premises are four corridors.
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Seyedan Sector, Qom
Located in this vicinity is the Sultan Sharif Street, where there is the Mirza Abu Talib water reservoir. Besides there is the Hamzeh Ebne Moosa Mausoleum, Shahzadeh Hamzeh square, Old Square, the Do Minareh Qiasieh School and a section of the southern portion of the Old Square is situated in this vicinity.
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Other Old Houses and City Sectors, Qom
The same are as follows: The Zand house (Haj Ali Khan), in the ancient city center, and in the Chaharmardan sector, related to the late Qajar period; The old sector of Loudid with the Haj Bala water reservoir and mosque, at the end of which is the Lab Chal alley; The Chaharmardan sector includes the Baqcheh-ye-Kollah Mal and the Imamzadeh Shah Hamzeh; The Sang Band locality with Imamzadeh Shahzadeh Ahmad Qasem and the Haj Hassan water reservoir; The Moosian locality which includes the Sang Siyah passage and the end of which is the gateway of the city; The Essaqieh locality which includes the Khakh Faraj gateway, Challeh Khoroos, and Bajak. In addition to the Baq Sepand sector which are the old localities of Qom city.
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Old Religious Science Schools
Feizieh Religious Science School, Qom
The said is one of the famous centers of theology related to the Shiite sect. This school took the place of the already established ‘Astaneh School’ in the mid 13th century, and was founded in the Safavid era. The school has four porches and is a double storied structure with 40 chambers on the lower floor, (Qajar period), and 40 chambers on the upper floor, built in the 14th century A.H. The ancient sector of the school is the southern porch, dating back to 939 A.H., adorned with beautiful tile work of the Safavid age. This vicinity is known as the entrance and archaic courtyard of the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.).
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Jahangir Khan School, Qom
The same is located in the eastern section of the city, and is a school of the Safavid era. The structure went under repair during the Qajar period; thence it came to be known by the same name. Though this school is small, it is one of the reputed schools of Qom, nurturing many learned scholars from old times. The same was renovated during the period of Fathali Shah, and lately in the year 1994, during the times of Ayatollah Borujerdi. It is said that due to intricate architectural efforts this structure is unique and an outstanding one in Iran.
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Qiasieh Religious Science School, Qom
The above mentioned school is located near the old square of the city, and due to the renovation and development of the city, is situated in Azar Avenue. The structure of this school is related to the early mid 9th century (830 A.H.). The facade of this structure stands to an elevation of 12 m. flanked by two porches with false arched ceilings. Plaster work, inscriptions and holy verses can be noted. The minarets have been delicately worked with diamond shaped tiles, and intricate plasterwork adorns the porch and arches.
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Razavieh School, Qom
According to historical facts, the same was the lodging of the 8th Imam of the Shiites during the presence of His Holiness to the city of Qom. The area near this vicinity is famously known as the Shah-e-Khorassan locality. On the premises of this school is a well which it is said that the 8th Imam (A.S.) bathed with its water. This structure has a tall porch, mosque and 24 chambers. Due to road construction nearly half of these evidences have been demolished, and presently only a minor portion remains.
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Seateh School, Qom
According to a historical narration, this structure was used as a place for religious practices and prayers by Hazrat Ma’soomeh (A.S.) during her presence in the city of Qom. In this sacred vicinity a beautiful mosque and chambers for novices have been built. The same has been adorned with beautiful mirror work currently and is located in the Mir Square sector of the city of Qom.
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Old Bazaars
Qom Bazaar, Qom
The archaic bazaar of Qom comprises of two sectors – the old and new ones. The old segment with its valuable surrounding structures lies to the east of Taleqani Avenue, prolonging from the limits of Paminar towards the north. The new sector of bazaar is an extension of this route running northwards. The old bazaar and its surrounding buildings date to the pre-Safavid period, but the architecture, layout, general network and arcades of the new sector are mostly of the Safavid and Qajar periods. The important bazaars are as follows:
The old bazaar section is comprised of an aggregate of the entrance ofRazavieh School, Sabuniha Mosque, Chehel Sotune Mosque and porch and the minarets of the remnants of Qiasieh School.
The new bazaar section is comprised of an aggregate of the surrounding alleys and the Haj Asqar Khan Bath. This vicinity is the commercial area of the city. The buildings in the surroundings pertaining to religious venues are active and are being utilized. Some of the sectors of the bazaar date to the Saljuqi and Eilkhani periods. Part of these alleys and schools of the aggregate are endowed.
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Other Historical Monuments
500 Year Old Cypress Tree, Qom
Within 6 km. to the east of Qom, and near the tomb of Hadi Gorgabi Jamkaran is a cypress tree. The same is also famously known as the Hadi Mehdi cypress. Being 500 years old, this tree is to the girth of 3 m. and rises to an elevation of 13 m.
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Hashti Building, Qom
The said building is near the mausoleum of Khak Faraj. In the midst of this structure is a well with a hillock on it. There are two theories related to this vicinity. The first is that the Hajar-ol-Asvad (or the black stone) in Mecca, was transferred from here to the Kaba. The second theory is that this well was dug so as to gain water, but due to an earthquake the well was set ablaze (without the use of fuel). It is due to this reason that the belief goes that one of the three largest fire-temples of the Zoroastrians was located in this vicinity.
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Suggest your comments about nearby Sightseeing

 

 

 

iran Map Maps
General Information:Bank and exchange office:

Melli Bank of Iran, Marashi Najafi street,QOm

 

Main post office:

 

There is a post office in Marashi najafi street.

 

Internet & Phone:

There are a bunch of internet cafes and long distance phone places along the Marashi Najafi street.

 

Travel agency:

 

Iran air office at Marashi street.

 

Restaurants:

Bihan restaurant at Marashi street is a good option , although there are plenty more along this Marashi! street.

 

Getting There and Away:

 

Bus station is located near Haftdad square. There are tons of daily depatures to Tehran , isfahan…etc.

 

Hotels:
::   Qom

:: Qom 4 star
:: Alzahra 2 star
:: Safa hotel apartments
:: Aria hotel 2 star
::Al Nabi hotel 1 star
:: Kowsar hotel 1 star
::Etminan hotel 1 star
:: Mohammad hotel 1star
Haram guesthouse
:: Marmar 4 star (Qazvin)
:: Alborz 2 star (Qazvin)
:: Sharafkhaneh 3 star  (Shabestar)
:: Tourist inn 3 star (Semnan)
:: Sangsar 3 star (Sangsar)
:: Kaveh 3 star (Saveh)
:: Sadra 3 star (Saveh)
:: Asia 3 star (Zanjan)
:: Ghazal 3 star (Zanjan)
:: Park 2 star (Zanjan)
:: Tourist inn 2 star (Zanjan)

 

Historical Monuments
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The Historical Monuments:
::Castles
Archeological Hills
Tombs 
Historical Caravansaries
Old Houses and City Sectors
Old Religious Science Schools 
Old Bazaars 
Other Historical Monuments

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The Art & Culture:
::Museums
Special Villages
Handicrafts, Music & Foods

The Sacred & religious monuments:
::Old Mosques
Mausoleums and Imamzadehs
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The natural attractions:
::Lakes 
Rivers 
Altitudes and Summits
Protected Zones 
Caves

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The Towns:

::Qom

 

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