Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal elements. Militant Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981.
During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq over disputed territory. Key current issues affecting the country include the pace of accepting outside modernizing influences and reconciliation between clerical control of the regime and popular government participation and widespread demands for reform. Unemployment among the young is also an issue, due to Iran having the largest percentage of young people in the world.
Iran (Persian: ايران) is a large country in the Middle East, between the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, it is bordered by Iraq to the west, Turkey, Azerbaijan’s Naxcivan enclave, Armenia, and Azerbaijan to the northwest, Turkmenistan to the northeast, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the southeast.
IRAN , which takes its name from the Aryans , an Indo European nomadic people who migrated to his area in the second millennium B.C it were called Persia as the Greek used to call it . The excavation shows the existence of civilization dating from 8000 B.C and earlier. Later civilization such as the Acadians , the Urartians in north – western Iran , and the Elamites in southeast of Iran have left the wonderful traces of their cities
The history of Iran started properly by the Mede at least the eight-century B.C they were Indo-Europeans. Cyrus the Great established new empire in 550 B.C , made Pasargade , Babylonia , Ecbatana , as his capitals. He offered freedom to Jews captured in Babylonia and ordered to rebuild their Temple. The dynasty of Cyrus and Darius was called Achaemenid. They were defeated in 331-30 B.C by Alexander , who burnt Persepolis , married with the daughter of Darius III , and died few years later. His vast empire was divided between his generals , Greek settlement in Iran was soon challenged by the Arsacide Parthians , an Iranian people from north -east in 238.B.C.During 500 years of power , the parthians had to face with Romans-the Sagas-from Chinese and Turkmenistan in the east. At this time Pahlavi became the official language of the empire.
The Sassanid dynasty started in 224.A.D. The empire of Sassanid paid attention to develop the towns , irrigation and industrialization. The Romans were conquered in A.D.242 , the area controlling by the Sassanid stretching from Euphrates to Merv and the Punjab , including Heart and Sis-tan. Unfortunately this powerful dynasty succumbed to the invasion of Arabs in 637 A.D Iran changed the Zoroastrian religion to Islam. The control of the Empire fell into the hands of Arab caliphs for more than 500 years , but inside the country especially in the north ( Caspian sea ) there were some local independent governments such as Buyides , or Ghaznavids , between A.D. 1040 and 1055 , both were defeated by Seljuk , a Turkish-speaking people of Irano-turkish clan established Turkistan , They founded a vast empire that came to an end with the Mongol invasion under Chengis khan in A.D.1218.Second Mongol invasion under Hulaku destroyed the powerful Caliphate of Baghdad and Assassin sect ( Ishmaelite sect ) in A.D.1256.
These Mongols had done such destruction to the country that many cities were totally wiped from the face of the earth. In fourteenth century , Tamer-lane , another conqueror from central Asia , put an end Mongol rule and established timurid dynasty in Iran under which for a time literature and the arts were flourished. For a short time , the Turkmen Qaraqoyunlu came to the power that in fifteenth century were followed by the ottomans? Turk , this resoled in confusion and rivalry that finally came over with arrival of Safavid.
In 1501 , Shah Abbas who was in power consolidated his kingdom suppressing rebellions and built many roads and monuments , caravanserais , etc. After shah Abbess’s death , the country once again was the scene of a series of wars , with the Uzbeks Afghans , Russia , and turkey’s. this dynasty disappeared at 1747 , the zand dynasty followed ruling the country for a short time , but with the crew assassination of the lotfali khan zand by Mohammad Qadjar , the dynasty of Qadjar started their ruling over country till 1925.
The only positive point of their ruling was the establishment of a House of Parliament. The last king of Qadjar , Ahmad Shah , formally deposed and Reza Khan , a commander of Persian Cossack brigade by a coup became king and founded the Pahlavi dynasty that came to an end by Islamic Revolution in 1979.From this time , Iran changed the monarchy system to an Islamic republic system.