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Historic Capitals

Iran’s Historic Capitals Cities throughout the Centuries:

This guide will  help you Trace back the history of Iranian cities. For you to better understand Iran and its history we have a very brief pictured history of Iran throughout the centuries here.

Era / dynasty

Persian name

Capital

Famous Remains

Duration

Dynasty Domain

Bronze age عصر برنز SusaZabol Shahre Sokhte Up to 10,000 BC
Zayandeh- Rud زاینده رود 6th millennium BC
Proto-Elamite پیش ایلامی  Tepe sialk , Ziggurat 3400 BC-2500 BC
Elam ایلامی Khuzestan (Anshan)
Kerman (Awan)
Lorestan  Province
Chogha Zanbil
Haft Tepe
Kalmakareh cave
 3200 BC – 539 BC
Mandaeans منائیان  Bukan Tepe kalaichi
Teppe Hasanlu
 850- 650 BC
Medes مادها  Hamadan (Ecbatana)  Tepe Nush I Jan,
Tepe Godin (Kermanshah)
 678 – 549 BC
Achaemenid هخامنشیان Shiraz (pasargad) Hamadan(Ecbatan)
Susa
Tomb of Cyrus Apadana
Shaver castle
 550- 330 BC
Seleucid سلوکیان Seleucia
(305–240 BC)

Antioch
(240–63 BC)
 312 -248 BC
Parthia/Arsacid پارت ها Hamadan (Ecbatana)
Susa
 (Khuzestan)
Tepe mosli
Apadana
Masjed Soleyman
 247-224 AD
Sasanian ساسانیان Shiraz (Estakhr)
Susa
Takht Tavus Firuz abad
Ivan karkhe
 224-651
Islamic conquest  633-651
Umayyad Caliphates خلافت بنی امیه  661-750
Abbasi Caliphates خلافت عباسی  750-819
Samanid سامانیان  819-999
Tahirid طاهریان  Nishapur  Tepe shadyakh  861-1003
Saffarid صفاریان  931-1090
Ziyarid زیاریان Isfahan
Tehran ( Ray)
Gorgan
Gonbad e Qabus tower  934-1055
Buyid آل بویه Shiraz
Tehran
 ( Ray)
 1008-1141
Kakuyid آل کاکویه Isfahan
Yazd– Ghadamgah
Ghaznavid غزنویان  962-1187
Seljuq سلجوقیان Neyshabur
Isfahan

Tehran ( Ray)
1077-1307
Khwarazmian خوارزمیان 1077-1256
Mongol Empire امپراتوری مغول 1219-1221
Ilkhanate ایلخانان Tabriz
Zanjan (Soltaniyeh)
1256-1335
Timurian تیموریان  1370–1507
Multi Sultanate era ملوک الطوایفی
Safavian صفویان Tabriz
Isfahan
Qazvin
 1501-1736
Afsharian افشاریان  Mashhad  1736-1794
Zand زندیه Shiraz
Tehran
 1750-1794
Qajar قاجاریه  Tehran  1785-1925
Pahlavi پهلوی  Tehran  1925-1979
Islamic Republic جمهوری اسلامی  Tehran  1979 – Present

Notes:

  • Famous remains has only been mentioned for dynasties that have very little remains, or the remaining are very typical or special. since the Islamic conquest, the remains from each era are too many to be able to mention here.
  • The dynasties with a blank capital city had their capitals out side current Iran
  • Many dynasties overlapped, since the older was losing power and territory and the new was gaining power and expanding
  • The pictures are  maps of the dynasties territories at the climax of their power
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